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19 cm, 40 g. Like Skylark, including white outer tail feathers, but more slender and has the distinctive habit of frequently flicking its long tail up and down. Head and upperparts brown, streaked darker; prominent white eyebrow; underparts whitish, streaked brown on breast. Runs and walks jerkily on long legs; often flies a short distance ahead, calling a shrill ''scree'' or drawn-out ''zwee''. Habitat: Open habitats from coast to alpine tops, but avoids intensively farmed areas; mainly near coast, on shingle riverbeds, gravel roads, and scree slopes. Breeding: Aug-Mar.
63 cm; 6 1700 g, Q 1400 g. Large goose-like duck with orange-chestnut undertail and tertials. Male has black head with greenish gloss, body dark grey finely barred black. Female has brilliant white head, body bright orange-chestnut, obscured by darker fine barring in eclipse plumage. Juveniles like male, but immature females develop white patches around eyes and at base of bill. In flight, prominent white patches on upperwings. Often call; male a deep ''zonk-zonk . . .'', female a shrill ''zeek, zeek . . .'' Mostly seen as pairs or in large flocks, especially during the moult in Dec-Mar. Habitat: Farmland, lakes, ponds and high-country riverbeds. Breeding: Aug-Dec.
51 cm; Male 1050 g, Female 850 g. Deep blue with black head and upperparts. Undertail white, flirted with every step. Bill and shield scarlet; eye red; legs and feet orange-red. Sexes alike. Immature has much brown and buff in the plumage and on bill and legs. Voice a loud unmusical screech. Runs well and swims with tail held high. Clambers about and may perch in scrub and trees. When disturbed in the open, runs to cover or flies, legs dangling, for a short distance. Flies high at night, calling - a loud harsh screech. Habitat: Wetlands, estuaries, short damp pasture and parks. Often in extended family groups. Breeding: Aug-Mar.
37 cm; male 300 g, female 260 g. Grey and white gull, mainly of the coast. Like Black-billed Gull but shorter deeper bill and boldly patterned wingtips. Adult has head, underparts and tail white, sometimes pinkish on breast; back and wings pearlygey, except wingtips black with small white window. Short deep bright red bill; legs and feet red; eye white. Juvenile and 1st year have larger dark patch at wingtip and very small, if any, white window. Bill dark with pink near base; legs pale flesh to reddish black; eye brown. Habitat: Breeds subantarctic from Africa to Chathams; in NZ region, on coast from Three Kings to Campbell Is; inland colony at Lake Rotorua. Common in coastal waters, beaches and estuaries; only occasionally (but sometimes in large flocks) inland to wet paddocks, playing fields and lakes. Breeding: Oct-Feb.
Male 28 cm, 80 g; Female 25 cm, 70 g. Very like the Yellow-crowned Parakeet but larger and with red crown, forehead and band from bill to behind eye; rump patches crimson. Flight direct and rapid, often above the canopy, or sideslipping through the trees. Flight call a rapid loud chatter, lower-pitched than Yellow-crowned Parakeet. Habitat: Rare in native forests on the main islands but common in forest and scrub on Stewart I and many predator-free offshore and outlying islands. Breeding: Oct-Mar.
12 cm, 12 g. Small dull brownstreaked finch, but seen closely forehead crimson and chin black. Male in breeding season develops a pink to crimson flush on its breast, varying in intensity with individual and region. Juvenile lacks the crimson and black on the head and can look pale-headed. Often seen feeding or flying in large flocks, especially near weed-infested crops. Flight erratic and undulating; flight call a fast harsh rattling metallic ''chich-chich-chich'', sometimes followed by a ''bizzzz''. Main call a plaintive, questioning ''tsooeet?''. Habitat: Farmland, orchards, tussockland, forest and scrub margins, parks and gardens. Breeding: Oct-Feb.
8 cm; Male 6 g, Female 7 g. NZ''s smallest bird. Rounded wings; very short stumpy tail; bill fine and slightly upturned. Male bright yellow-green above, green on rump; female streaked dark and light brown above, brownish yellow on rump. Both whitish below, conspicuous white eyebrow stripe, and yellowish flanks. Immature like female but streaked on breast. Feeds by working its way up trees and shrubs, flicking wings and exploring bark and lichen of trunks, branches and leaves. Call a very highpitched sharp repeated ''zipt'', beyond the hearing range of some people. Habitat: Native forest and scrub; favours beech and tawa forest. Some in exotic forest, gorse and willows, especially in South I. Breeding: Sep-Feb.
18 cm, 35 g. Inquisitive and confiding dark slaty-grey forest bird with long thin legs and an upright stance. Male (North I ) is dark, almost black, except for white spot above bill, pale greyish-white lower breast and belly; black feathers have pale shaft streaks,and so very faintly streaked upperparts; wings dark brownish black. Female and juvenile (NorthI) similar, but greyer with variable paler patches on breast and throat. Male (South I) has dark grey upperparts and upper chest, distinctly divided from yellowish-white lower chest and belly; flanks variably greyish; white spot above bill; wings dark brownish black. Female and juvenile (South I) similar, usually greyer on breast with variable whitish patches. Stewart I birds have similar patterns to North I. Perches on a low trunk or branch and flies to feed on the forestfloor; hops about and sometimes trembles one leg to induce prey to surface. Male song loud clear and sustained string of phrases, usually descending and including ''pwee-pwee-pwee'' phrases; varies regionally. Call a soft ''chirp''. Habitat: Native and exotic forest, sometimes tall scrub. Breeding: Jul-Jan.
25 cm; Male 80 g, Female 70 g. Head and body glossy black with bright chestnut saddle, rump and tail coverts; pendulous range—red wattles at base of black bill. North Island subspecies has thin buff line at upper edge of saddle. North Island juvenile has smaller wattles and lacks buff line; South Island juvenile (Jackbird) chocolate brown, paler below, with reddish-brown tail coverts, and small wattles. Often feeds on the forest ﬂoor, and bounds from branch to branch rather than ﬂies. Main call is a strident ringing 'Cheet, te-te-te-te'; often duet. Habitat: Forest and scrub on several offshore islands. Breeding: Aug-May.
16 cm, 25 g. Short-tailed metallic bronze-green cuckoo, barred dark green on white face and underparts. Juvenile duller and less distinctly barred. Song a distinctive series of high-pitched upward-slurring whistles: ''coo-ee, coo-ee . . .''followed by 1-2 downward slurringnotes: ''tsee-ew''; the latter often given when flying at night. Usual host is Grey Warbler. Habitat: Native forest, scrub, parks and gardens from Sep-Apr. Migrates to Solomon Is and Bismark Archipelago for NZ winter. Breeding: Oct-Feb.