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45 cm; Male 2.4 kg, Female 3.3 kg. Largest kiwi. Light brownish grey tinged with chestnut, mottled or banded horizontally with white; massive ivory bill; legs dark brown; claws vary from horn to black. Juvenile has proportionately longer bill and darker legs than similar Little Spotted Kiwi. Male very loud shrill warbling whistle; female slower and lower-pitched ascending warble; calls more powerful and slower than Little Spotted Kiwi. Habitat: Native forest, scrub, pakihi wetlands and tussock grassland from sea level to subalpine, but distribution patchy. Strongholds in northwestern Nelson, Paparoa Ranges and between Lake Sumner and Arthur''s Pass. Breeding: Jul-Dec.
38 cm, 230 g. Large dark bluish-grey bird with a black facial mask, short strongly arched black bill, long black legs, long tail and rounded wings. North Island adult has blue wattles; South lsland adult has orange wattles. Juvenile has smaller pinkish wattles, smaller facial mask, and dull brown wash in plumage. Leaps around in trees and takes short ﬂights, never sustained for long. More often heard than seen. Calls mostly at dawn; song is a slow string of very loud rich mournful organ-like notes. Habitat: Mainly tall podocarp hardwood forest in North Island, Little Barrier, Tiritiri Matangi and Kapiti lsland; formerly beech and mixed forest in South and Stewart ls, probably extinct. Breeding: Oct—Mar.
23 cm, 180 g. Small grey-brown owl, heavily streaked and spotted white. Flatter head and shorter tail than Morepork. Often seen by day perching on posts and farm sheds. Flight undulating. Call a clear high-pitched ''kiew''. Habitat: Farmland of South I only, especially near east coast. Breeding: Oct-Jan.
30 cm; male 1150 g, female 1325 g. Smallest kiwi. Brownish grey finely mottled or banded horizontally with white; long ivory bill; pale legs and claws. Male high-pitched ascending whistle; female lower and more tremulous; call rate faster and higher pitched than other kiwi, especially the female. Habitat: Native forest, scrub and grassland on a few offshore islands: c. 1,000 on Kapiti Island, small populations have been established on Hen, Tiritiri Matangi, Red Mercury and Long (Marlborough) Islands. Some may persist in Westland or Fiordland. Breeding: Sep-Feb.
40 cm, 125 g. Large brown cuckoo with very long tail. Adult has upperparts rich brown, barred black; face and underparts pale buff, boldly streaked brown and black. Juvenile has upperparts dull brown, spotted white; face and underparts buff, lightly streaked. Main call a loud harsh shriek - ''zzwheesht'' - from a high perch or in flight, any time of day. In flight, tail as long as body. Usual hosts are Whitehead, Brown Creeper and Yellowhead. Habitat: Mainly native and exotic forest, Oct-Mar, but almost anywhere on migration. Migrates to Pacific islands. Breeding: Nov-Jan.
58 cm; Male 1300 g, Female 1100 g. The familiar duck of parks and farm ponds. All have orange legs and feet, and a blue speculum bordered with thin black and broader white bands front and back. Breeding male has dark glossy green head, chestnut breast, pale grey body, black rump and undertail; bill yellow-green. Female is streaked and spotted brown and buff on body and wings; bill brownish grey with orange at base, sides and tip. Eclipse male like female but has greyer head and neck, with remnants of green on crown and nape, and chestnut wash on breast. Juvenile similar to female. Variable plumage because of interbreeding with Grey Duck. Feeds by dabbling on water surface or by upending; also grazes and eats cereals. Rises nearly vertically from water and flies with fast shallow wingbeats. Female call the well-known ''quack, quack''; male call a soft high-pitched ''quek''. Habitat: Wetlands, estuaries, rivers, farm ditches, parks and cereal crops. Breeding: Jul-Jan.
29 cm, 175 g. Dark brown owl, obscurely spotted and barred buff. Yellow eyes set in dark facial mask. Larger rounder head and longer tail than Little Owl. Nocturnal; roosts by day in thick vegetation, especially in tree ferns. Main call a loud double hoot - ''more-pork'' - also repeated monotonous ''more'' and rising vibrating ''creel. Habitat: Forest, scrub, lightly forested open country, parks and gardens. Breeding: SepMar.
Male 43 cm, 300 g; Female 47 cm, 500 g. Fast-flying raptor with rapid beats of long pointed wings; also soars and glides. Adult has head, sides of face and vertical patch (like drooping moustache) below eye dark brownish black, faint rufous eyebrow; nape, back, wings and tail bluish black, faintly barred buff. Base of bill and chin white, throat and sides of neck buff streaked dark brown; breast and belly dark brown narrowly barred white; thigh and undertail rufous. Bill black, greyer at base; cere, legs and feet yellow; eye dark brown. Juvenile distinctly darker brown and less boldly marked. Bush Falcon (North and northwestern South Is) as above; eastern form (eastern South I) larger and paler; southern form (southwestern South, Stewart and Auckland Is) intermediate, more rufous on Auckland I. Often perches high in trees or on a rock, swoops to catch prey. Call a loud rapid ''kek-kek-kek''. Habitat: Forests and bush patches, open tussockland of South I. Juveniles wander to cities, orchards, riverbeds and offshore islands. Breeding: Sep-Feb.
24 cm, 65 g. Small deep green-blue and buff bird; green grading to blue on the head and upperparts. Pale yellowish-buff to off-white underparts and collar round back of neck. Immature duller with buff feather edges on upperparts and brownish mottling on chest. Often seen perched on powerlines, or on branches and rocks near water. Call a loud penetrating ''kek-kek-kek-kek''. Habitat: Forest, river margins, farmland, lakes, estuaries and rocky coastlines; movement towards the coast in winter. Breeding: Oct-Feb.
51 cm, 650 g (mainland); 55 cm, 800 g (Chathams). Largest pigeon in NZ. Head, throat, upper breast and upperparts metallic green with purplish sheen and bronze reflections, especially around neck (mainland), or with ashy-grey wash (Chathams); sharp line separates upper breast from white lower breast, belly and legs. Eye crimson; bill red with orangish tip; feet crimson. Juvenile similar, but upperparts duller, smudgy upper breast, dull bill and feet, and often the tail is shorter. In flight, strong steady wingbeats, broad rounded wings and long broad tail; noisy swish of wings is distinctive. Call a single soft penetrating ''kuu''. Habitat: Native forests, especially in lowland areas, scrub, forest patches among farmland, rural and city gardens and parks. Breeding: Variable, depending on availability of ripe fruit; usually Oct-Apr.