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16 cm (including 8 cm tail), 8 g. Small bird with small head and bill; long tail, often fanned. Pied phase has grey head, white eyebrow, brown back; yellow underparts, with white and black bands across chest; black and white tail. Juvenile similar, but browner body, rusty-brown wing coverts, and indistinct chest markings. Island subspecies have variable white in tail, most in Chathams. Black phase, mainly in South I, all sooty black except white spot behind eye. Restless movements; twists and jerks on a perch, tail fanned, flies out to seize flying insects. Erratic flight as it hawks over forest or scrub canopy, into an insect swarm over a clearing, paddock, pond or garden. Call a penetrating ''cheet''; song a harsh rhythmical ''saw-like'' ''tweeta-tweet-a-tweet-a-tweet . . .'' Habitat: Forest, scrub, farmland with hedges and shelterbelts, river margins, parks and gardens. Breeding: Aug-Mar.
18 cm, 35 g. Warm brown above, paler below, heavily streaked and spotted dark brown;forehead and crown chestnut; whitish eyebrow stripe. Distinctive longfrayed tail. Sexes and juveniles alike. Secretive, often remaining hidden in thick vegetation or moving mouse-like through the rushes, appearing inquisitively in the scrub canopy. Reluctant to fly. Flight weak and whirring, tail drooping. Often detected by sound alone. Common call a short sharp ''tchip'', and metallic double-note ''uu-tick'' often produced by pair in duet. Habitat: Freshwater and tidal wetlands, especially reedbeds or pakihi with emergent scrub; also drier sparse scrub and bracken. Breeding: Aug-Mar.
13 cm; Male 16 g, Female 15 g. Small finch with striking gold bars on black wings. Adults have brilliant redface, slightly more extensive on the male, especially above and behind the eye; white ear coverts and sides to neck; black crown and half-collar; upperparts and breast soft brown; rest of underparts and rump white; tail black, spotted white near tip. Juvenile pale buff, streaked and spotted darker; wings and tail as in adult. Outside breeding season, usually in flocks, often feeding on seeds of thistles or other weeds. Flight undulating. Male song a pleasant liquid twittering ''tsitt-zuitt-witt''. Habitat: Farmland, orchards, parks and gardens. Breeding: Oct-Mar.
15 cm, 28 g. A robust olive-greenfinch with a pale heavy bill and prominent yellow on the sides of the tail and the edges of the closed wing. Males olive green, the brightest have a conspicuous yellow eyebrow and yellowish belly. Females browner, dull olive green, the dullest a washed-out greenish brown. Juvenile and many immatures duller again, mainly brown, streaked darker with yellowish-green wash on rump and upper tail coverts. Flight undulating, looking heavy-bodied and short-tailed, and showing yellow wing flashes. Out of breeding season, often form large flocks in weed-infested crops. In breeding season, male repeatedly calls a harsh drawn-out ''dzwee''. Other common calls are a pleasant twittering ''chichichichichit-teu-teu-teu-teu'', sometimes just the ''teu'' notes; and a sweet rising ''tsooeet''. Habitat: Farmland, pine plantations, native bush and scrub fringes, pine and macrocarpa shelterbelts, parks and gardens.Breeding: Oct-Mar.
10 cm, 6.5 g. Very small grey bird with a darker tail, conspicuously tipped white, and a habit of hovering to pick insects and spiders from plants. Adult is grey-brown above, pale grey on face, throat and breast; off-white belly and undertail, red eye. Sexes alike. Juvenile similar but yellowish on face and underparts, brown eye. Flits and hovers among outer foliage and twigs to catch invertebrates. Song a distinctive long musical wavering trill. Habitat: Scrub (especially manuka and kanuka), forest, parks and gardens. Builds a distinctive domed hanging nest, with small side entrance hole. Breeding: Aug-Jan.
14 cm, 21 g. Nondescript, dark and unobtrusive bird, rather like a female House Sparrow but has slim body,fine black bill. Upperparts brown streaked darker; face, collar and breast washed grey; flanks streaked brown; red eye; orange-brown legs. Sexes alike. Juvenile similar but has brown eye. Usually feeds alone on the ground, keeping close tocover; shuffles along in a crouched posture, delicately picking at the surface. Sings from the top of a bush or hedge, a thin hurried warble. Call a high-pitched insistent ''tseep''. Habitat: Forest, scrub, farmland with hedges, orchards, parks and gardens. Breeding: Aug-Feb.
14 cm, 30 g. A gregarious, garrulous and quarrelsome associate of humans. Conical bill. Adult male chestnut brown above, streaked black on back; crown darkgrey; rump greyish brown; underparts greyish white. Black bib and bill in breeding season, bib smaller and bill greyish pink rest of year. Female and juvenile drab sandy brown above, streaked darker on back; greyish white below; pale buffy eyebrow and sides to neck. Young juvenile often shows fleshy yellow gape. Flight fast and direct, showing small white wingbar. Voice a variety of monotonous unmusical cheeps and chirps. Habitat: Towns, arable farmland and farm shelterbelts, orchards; sometimes edges of native forest well away from human habitation. Breeding: Sep-Feb.
45 cm; Male 525 g, Female 475 g. A large sometimes inquisitive forest parrot with crimson underwings and rump. North I birds are mainly olive brown with darker feather edges; crown paler and greyer; golden wash on cheeks; dark crimson collar, undertail and lower belly. Bill longer and more arched in the male. Juvenile has yellow base of lower mandible. South and Stewart Is birds brighter, and crown almost white. Noisy; many varied calls from liquid whistling notes to harsh grating calls. Habitat: Favours native forest and predator- and possum-free offshore islands, but a few visit gardens and orchards. Breeding: Sep-Apr.
46 cm; Male 1000 g, Female 800 g. A large, often bold parrot, olive green with scarlet underwings and rump. Dark-edged feathers make it look sculpted. Bill, cere, eye and legs dark brown; upper mandible longer in the male. Juvenile has pale crown, yellow cere, eye-ring and on bill; yellow fades in a couple of years to bill only. Call a loud ringing ''keee-aa'', mainly in flight. Delights in aerobatics and playful but sometimes destructive behaviour. Habitat: Mainly in alpine zone, but also in forest and descends to lowland river flats. Breeding: Jul-Mar.
40 cm;Male 2.2 kg, Female 2.8 kg. Dark greyish brown streaked lengthways reddish brown;long ivory bill. Male has shrill clear (or slightly warbling) ascending and then descending whistle; female has lower-pitched, hoarse cry. Habitat: Native forest, scrub, exotic forest (especially in Northland, Coromandel and Taranaki), rough farmland and tussockland (subalpine and dunes). Most common in Northland and on Stewart Island; small distinctive populations at Okarito (60-100 birds) and near Haast (200-300 birds). Breeding: Jun-Mar.